Monday, September 13, 2010

How Shivaji demolished Manusmriti

-Mahavir Sanglikar

Shivaji violated many laws of Manusmriti. Here is a brief account of his Anti-Manusmriti activities.

Shivaji was a great king of medieval Maharashtra. He was contemporary of Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb and Ali Adilsah, Sultan of Bijapur. In very odd situations, Shivaji was successful in establishing his own kingdom.

Although people know him as a Hindu King, he was not a Vedic. Actually he was a follower of Shaivism in his personal life. But as a King, he was not in favor or against other religions. He was a true secular. However, he never supported the holy law book of Vedics known as Manusmriti, which was imposed on Indians for more that two millenniums. There are at least eight instances, where he breached the laws imposed by Manusmriti.

Giving Arms to Shudra People
According to the Manusmriti, only warrior communities, i.e. Kshatriyas had been given the right of bearing arms. Other people like Shudras and atishudras were banned from this right and they had no right of joining army. Shivaji breached this rule and invited people from all sections of the community to join his army. Shivaji’s army was made of cultivators, craftsmen, tribals, fishermen and people living at outskirts of villages. All these people were Shudras and atishudras according to the Manusmriti.

Collaboration with Mlenchh People
Although fanatic Vedic historians have projected him as an anti-Muslim King, Shivaji was not against Islam or Muslims. You can see a high number of Muslim officers and soldiers in his Navy, Artillery and army. The number of Shivaji’s Muslim officers and soldiers was far bigger than that of Vedic Brahmins. We should remember that both the Chiefs of Shivaji’s navy and artillery were Muslims. Even many of Shivaji’s bodyguards were Muslims. A division of Shivaji’s army was particularly for Muslims, having 700 soldiers. This number is definitely a big one, as Shivaji’s army was a not very big and all the battles he fought were with help of a tiny number of soldiers. Collaborating with Muslims was also a breach of the rules of Manusmriti, as according to it Muslims can be classified as Mlenchh people. Manusmriti never allowed accepting Mlenchh people to collaborate with.

Opposing Tradition of Sati
Shivaji breached the laws of Manusmriti again and again. According to Manusmriti, if a man dies, his wife also has to die by jumping in the funeral pyre. This tradition was known as Sati. When Shivaji’s father Shahaji died, Jijau, Shivaji’s mother decided to become a Sati, but Shivaji opposed to do so. This was again a breach of the laws of Manusmriti.

Traveling through Sea
In another instance of breaching the laws imposed by Manusmriti, Shivaji founded his own navy, and he himself traveled through sea and even took part in attack on enemy territories through sea routs. Manusmriti does not allow traveling by see and the offender has to perform penance for it. This tradition was observed even until the first half of last century. But Shivaji breached the rule and never performed a penance for it. Remember that it was 17th century and the rules were very strict at that time.

His son learned Sanskrit Language
Manusmriti does not allow people other than Brahmins to learn, speak, and write or even to listen Sanskrit language. But overthrowing this rule, Shivaji arranged tutoring of this language for his son Sambhaji. Sambhaji became scholar of this language and wrote a book in Sanskrit. Thus we see that both Shivaji and Sambhaji were offenders according to the Manusmriti.

Netaji Palekar was an officer in army of Shivaji. Eventually, he got converted to Islam. Shivaji reconverted him. His another officer Bajaji Nimbalkar had also adopted Islam. Shivaji not only reconverted Bajaji, but made him his sister in law by arranging his marriage with own daughter. This was surely against Manusmriti lawas as Manusmriti does not permit such things.

Marrying with a Dalit Woman
After establishment of his own kingdom, Shivaji wanted to coronate himself, but the Brahmins opposed to do so. They declared that Shivaji was not a Kshatriya but a Shudra, and according to Manusmriti, a Shudras can not become a king. So Shivaji coronated himself by inviting a Brahmin from Kashi, who take a huge amount of gold coins the coronation ceremony. But later Shivaji arranged another coronation according to Shakt tradition. For performing the rituals, according to the Shakt rules, he married with an Atishudra (Dalit) girl. This was also an offence of breaching the laws of Manusmriti.

Killing Brahmins
According to Manusmriti, Killing a Brahmin (Brahmhatya) is one of the biggest offences. He killed Krishnaji Bhaskar Kulkarni, a Brahmin who was the ambassador of Afzal Khan. When Shivaji and Afzal Khan met at Pratap Garh, Afzal Khan tried to kill Shivaji. But clever Shivaji killed Afzal Khan by tactic. At that time, Krishnaji Bhaskar Kulkarni stroked his sword on Shivaji, which made a wound on Shivaji’s head. Shivaji killed that Brahmin on the spot. It was not just killing of a Brahmin, but demolition of Manusmriti.

It is a subject of research that how many Brahmins were killed by Shivaji. But his son Sambhaji killed many of his Brahmin Ministers who had tried to poison him.

I think that demolition of Manusmriti was Shivaji’s greatest gift to his subjects.

What was the reaction of Brahmins for violating the rules of Manusmriti by Shivaji and Sambhaji? That is another story, on which I will write soon.


  1. Shivasri Sambhaji,
    Mi tumacha blog vachala. Atishay chhan aahe. Bramhanani kapat karasthane karun itihas lihila aahe. Bramhanani katha , kadambarya, chitrapat, natake, internet ya madhyamatun bramhanachi haram khori lapavun thevali. Tumachyasarakhe lekhak dadapala gelela satya itihas shivbhaktana sangun tyanche prabodhan karat aahet, hi aanadachi gosht aahe. Krupaya nav-navin post takat chala. Aapan sare milun bramhanache dhong aani labadi ughad karu.
    Also read my blogs-

    1. Tumhi pakke brigedi dista Pol saheb...

      he aslya bhakad katha ani nibandh lihinyat tumhi sagale shivdharmi expert asta...

  2. wow I think marathi people have it in them to oppose vedic brahmanical fanaticism.First it was Shivaji and then Ambedkar


    1. Tari Aaplyala Kiti Kimmat aahe ........ Ek example deto ...... Maza ek mitra aahe deshmukh ......
      Gavi gelo tyachya ...
      Maza changla mitra . ek panat jevnare aamhi . pan gavi gelyavar ghari nenya sathi jeev var khali zala tyacha
      me shevti mhanalo ja bhetun ghe . me baher thambto . 2 taas baher thamblo . tya don tasat konala dosh dyava he kalat nhavate . tyala kahi bolu shakat nhavato . tyache aajol tase hote . shevati vichar sodla .
      sangayache evadech kiti hi khandyala khanda lavun firalo tari kona hi dalitala manapasun koni pardharmiya tevadha maan det nahi.
      Not Mean to hurt any 1.
      Jai Bhim
      Namo Budhha .

  4. mala abhiman aahe mi jai-bhim wala asnyacha...

  5. jai bhim im damalla.satyanarayana.from andharapradesh khammam.dist.sahumaharaj father ofreservations he is great man he put of all downtrodden people he arrange education,hostels but people are not rememmbered in other places i mean out side up .damalla.satyanarayana.dist.sec.andhrapradesh.khammam.dist

  6. In that situation any buddy can handle the political issues. If no buddy can handle that issues then peoples do everything what they want. In this situation increase the crime. It’s not a good for our country.
    Here King Manu tack the comment and create the some rules and regulation which suitable this time.
    Current position Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar generates Frame in Indian law in the suitable 1950 to 1960. But today very much BUG in the Indian Constitute. Then can you say Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar is Mad Person. No because the law made in the facing the situation.

    This is fact.

    1. मैडम kolapkar I would like to ask you do you read manusmruti , if yes , then my second question is , did you respect or agree to manusmruti as law , still your answer is yes , then I am sorry to say madam you are criminal , its not me but your dear manusmruti says and declared that , if any women write or read she is guilty she is criminal in the sight of manusmruti , this an offence,very serious offence and punishment is ,मराठीत लिहितो की जर कोणी स्री शिकते तर तिच्या कानात उकळलेल शिस टाकाव , now tell me madam ! ! ! You are educated and you have comited offence against manusmruti but according to the constitution written bye Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar education is your right , you know madam , what is the basic problem few people in India could not daiges that one Dalit person can write constitution and whole system are abide for it , also they could not daiges the glorification of Babasaheb , they love constitution but hate Ambedkar also they hate manusruti but love manu reason is simple they hate Ambedkar because Ambedkar did not belongs their cast , and they love manu cause he belongs to their cast otherwise if we set them free will they fallow the rule of manusmruti for them self only , and never use this kind of word for Ambedkar vishwas jawle

    2. jawale saheb.... aho kay badbad chalavli ahe tumhi ?
      wattel te badbadta ka aajchya yugat ?

    3. Brahmins created false history of chatrapati Shivaji, Krishna, mahabali and Ram. They introduced this fake hindu religion.

    4. Brahmins created false history of chatrapati Shivaji, Krishna, mahabali and Ram. They introduced this fake hindu religion.

    5. Vishwas Jawale you are absolutely correct!!!

    6. Vishwas Jawale you are absolutely correct!!!

  7. Congratulations for this article. It is showing a history of Shivaji that is not promoted by the mainstream. However, to give your perspective greater objectivity, I suggest you be more scientific in your presentation: that is, give more references from your research by quoting books or archives (see Wikipedia for example), so that the readers can look up for themselves and begin to trust what you are saying as 'the truth' and not merely 'your opinion'. Thank you once again.

  8. Sajari kara Krushnaji kulkarnichi janmdivas and
    expose what he had done.But remember that at that timr it was a custom who paid the salary so his chakari. so kulkarni cannot be blamed completely

  9. Krishnaji kulkarni was not copletely wrong.But Bharamins are saying they are only Rashtra udharak or patroit is wrong.and now they are shouting Me marathi

  10. Shinivas... first think dont say him Krishnaji his name is Krishan.. So call him krishna...
    Krishna ha Afzal Khanacha Vakil hota aani vakilala fakt bolanyacha aadhikar aasato, mag tyachya kade talavar kashi aali....

  11. You ridiculous idiots, if Shivaji had something against Hinduism why did he worship Shiva and why did he receive the devine sword from Durga? Just because one person who happened to be a brahmin screwed up, the entire community cannot be blamed. Shivaji may be a Maratha king but he is as much a Hindu as any seer or sage.
    VedaVyasa was born to a fisherwoman, but he became the guru of all gurus and compiler of the Vedas by virtue of his inclination, ability and actions.
    Mr. Sangliker, people like you who proliferate sectarianism are actually a 'dhabba' on the Maratha culture.

    1. He is not against Hinduism but against wrong things in Hinduism

  12. Mr. Sanglikar do not spoil name of great maratha king for your DIRTY ambitions. whole world knows Hindu religion is exist since Indus civilization. I don't believe vedas and upnishadas. But for your understanding, Ramayana wrote by a fisherman named Valya koli. Manusmruti is outdated thing. till today, i didn't know there is something like manusmruti. nobody is following that. then why you are worrying about principles of manusmruti? i don't understand why you are terrorized to manusmruti and brahmins? Do not spoil our great history.

    UDAY GHATGE ABHIJEET SHINGADE 8087355911/9960197754

  14. As per Bhagwat Geeta || "Yada Yada hi Dharmasya, Gla Nirbhavi Bharata, Abhyutanm Dharmasya, Tadatma Surjyamyaham | Paritranay Sadhunam Vinasha Dushnkrut Dharm Sanshta Panarthay Sambnvami Yuge yuge"||
    Shivray he Dev, Dharm aani deshachya Rakshanasathi Janmlele Avtarar Hote....Tyancha Jeevnache Lakshya, Aani Uddhish 1kach Hote HINDAVI Swarajya Chi Sthapana, Mug Tyacha Aad Brahman, Muslman, Maratha, Rajput, Ucch, Nich koni hi yeude Maharajani kadhi Gay keli Nahi....Bhavani Talwarila Lavchikta (flexibility) Nhavti...Ti kadhi Brahmin, Aani Marathi...Ucch Aani Nich asa Bhedbhav Karat Nase...kadachit timhala Ardhavat aani Chukicha mahit aahe...sarv pratham shivrayni krushnaji bhaskarala chethavni (warnig)dili mug tyani tyala Jakhami kela, marala nahi....aso to vishay nahich aahe...tar jase anushasn krishnajila la jahle tasech aanek patil, deshpanede, Ghorpade, Khan etc yana hi jahale aahe....Shivrayan Shudr Mhananarya Murkh (stupi, Idiot) Lokana mahit have ki Shivray Malkari Hote....5 gharat Bhiksha Magitlya Shivay Ann (meal) grahan kart nhavte... Jar ka Tya Paristhit (situation) madhe shivray Manusmriti sarkhya goshti baghat basle aaste tar aaj aplyala te shabd aikayla pan milale naste....Na Rahile aste Brihamna, Na rahile Aste Maratha, Na rahile Aste Lingayat, Na rajput...Kahsla Rao Apaplya Madhe Bhadant Basla aahat...aplyakadchi saglyat mothi power aahe ti Mhanje Shivaji Maharajanchi Prerna....Ti nasht vhavhi hya sathi kahi jan prayatn kart aahe...lkshat ghya reee...Mi jay Bhim aahe,,,, Mi jay Shivaji aahe,,,,Mi amuk aahe....mi tamuk aahe....ase kiti diwas chalayche...Apapli Bhandan Nantar baghu...pahilyanda tyala gadu jo aplyat nehmi Bhandane laun deto...
    Bahut Kay Lihane..Lekhan Sima
    Kalyan Aaso..Jay Jagdamb...
    ||Jay Bhavani. Jay Shivaji ||
    From.....Kattar Shiv Bhakt

  15. ti Manusmruti tujha aaicha gandit ghal

  16. Sambhaji Raje was much opposed by a section of Brahmins in Maharashtra.It is widely claimed that they were happy to learn the execution of sambhaji Raje by Mughals. His death day is allegedly is celebrated by them. annually.


  18. Aap kya fek rahe ho dost. kabhi manusmruti padhi hai ya bus yu hi feke ja rahe ho.
    Pahli bat ki Sudro ko shashtra dene ko manai nahi hai manusmuruti mein na hi sati patha ka ya sea(samundra) mein travel karne ki manai hai na hi kisi sudra ko sanskrit padhne ki manai hai. na hi kisi dalit ya kisi aur stri se shadi karne ki manai hai. agar hai to slok batao ki kis mein ye likha huaa hai bus fekte bahot hai aap.

    aur Jab manusmuruti likhi gayi tab to musalman the hi nahi to un se dur rahne ki bat kaha se aayi? aur jab manusmruti likhi gayi to dharmantaran ka koi prahana hi nahi tha to ye bat aap kaha se laye akash mein se....

    ..... lagta hai aapne khud koi book likhi hai uska nam manusmruti rakh diya hai aur use shivaji ne obey nahi ki hai aesa pratipadit karna chahte hai.

    ............ Brahmin ko dand nahi dena chahiye aesa manusmruti mein kahi bhi nahi likha hai shivaji ne agar brahmino ko mara hai uske desh ke virudhdh yudhdh karne ki vajah se to vo manusmruti ke khilaf nahi hota hai balki us ke anusar hi hai....

    ............. aur shivaji ke sath bahot sare brahmin bhi the is liye ye kahena bandh kar do ki brahmin achhe nahi hai ya aSchhe hai.....

    ........ Aur muje brahmin samaj kar galiya mat dena kyo ki mein brahmin nahi hu....... taki aapke man mein ye bhram na rahe ki mein brahmin hone ki vajah se ye likh raha hu..

    ....... Pahle padho phir blog chalao.......
    Jay Bharat
    Jay Rashtra
    Jay Maharashtra

    1. This comment has been removed by the author.

  19. Good article.....!! Let the people know why shivaji maharaj is great....!!!!!

  20. I agree with Peter Gonslavis. Give proper references of you statement.History is based on facts.

  21. आपले मत वाचले. हिंदू नावाचा धर्म हा कधीच अस्तिवात नव्हता. धर्म एकच "सनातन" अथवा "वैदिक" धर्म. शैव हा धर्म नाही तर सनातन धर्मातील पंथ आहे. ह्या पंथाचे मानणारे शिवाची पूजा करतात. महाराजांनी शुद्र आणि अति शूद्रांच्या हाती शस्त्रे दिली तर बिघडले काय? सनातन धर्मात वर्ण हा कर्माने मिळतो, जन्माने नाही. आपल्या धर्माचा ऱ्हास ह्याच मुर्ख विचारांनी आणि घाणेरड्या जातपातीने झाला आहे. मुसलमांना त्यांच्या सैन्यात प्रवेश दिला तर काय झाले? ह्या प्रकारे महाराजांनी दाखवून दिले कि ते धर्मसाहिष्णू होते. त्यांनी त्यांच्या आईला सती जाऊ दिले नाही त्यात काहीच चुकीचे नाही कारण सती प्रथा हि एक अतिशय घाणेरडी आणि विकृत प्रथा होती. ज्या ब्रम्हहत्या महाराजांच्या हातून झाल्या ते ब्राह्मण दोषी असल्याशिवाय महाराजांनी त्यांना मृत्युदंड दिला असेल हे जर विश्वास करण्या पलीकडे आहे. त्यांनी स्वतःचे आरमार उभारले कारण ते दूरदृष्टीचे होते आणि इंग्रजांना सात समुद्र पार करून आलेले बघितल्यानंतर त्यांना आरमाराचे महत्व कळले होते. नेताजी पालकर याला त्यांनी इस्लाम मधून सनातन धर्मात परत घेऊन एक अतिशय चांगला पायंडा घातला. असेच जर आपण सगळ्या बाटलेल्या मुसलमांना आणि ख्रिस्ती बंधूंना परत घेतले असते तर आज भारतात जे काही या दोन धर्मांचे चाळे चालू आहेत ते चालले नसते. महाजांनी एका दलित स्त्रीशी विवाह केला तर काय चुकले त्यात? जातपात नष्ट करण्यासाठीचे ते पाऊल महाराजांनी उचलले होते. ते सुद्धा त्या काळात. मनुस्मृती जेव्हा लिहिली गेली तो कालखंड वेगळा होता आणि अत्युच्च धर्म तोच असतो जो चुकीच्या प्रथा आणि रूढी बंद करून पुढे येतो. माझी जात हवीच असेल तर मी एक कोकणस्थ ब्राह्मण आहे आणि महाराजांनी केलेल्या ह्या गोष्टींनी मला वाटते कि सनातन धर्माचा उद्धाराच झाला आहे ना की काही तोटा झाला.

  22. This article is part of anti Bramin movement in Maharastra.Manusmriti is not a book related to Hinduism,shivaji need not follow this book at all.Hinduism is based on Vedas,Upanishads and Puraanas.There were no kshatriyas at the time of shivaji,four varnas existed only 1000 years ago,there were only thousands of Hindu castes during shivajis time,hence all Hindus became his soldiers.Vijaya nagara empire,Mysore kings were also having such army well before shivaji.Shivaji had some Muslims commanders mainly in artillery section because that time artilleries ,horses were coming from Turkey and Persia.Only Muslims were comfortable in using artillery,Muslim traders were supplying Horses.

  23. There was no any Maratha community before shivaji,all community hindus joined his army and later called as Maratha.There are many Maratha community people living in karnataka can speak only kannada,there are many konkani speaking marathas in Goa and coastal karnataka.Existence of Maratha community in ancient time is a recent creation by some casteist people.Shivaji called his swarajya means finishing foreign rule (Persian speaking Muslim rule) and establishing Hindu rule from attock to Rameshwar.Holker occupied Punjab and kashmir in 1758 is part of this shivajis vision.

  24. pakkya brigedi mansachi post....

  25. Dear Prakash, Have you originally read Manusmruti in original? And As per my reading it is very much clearly said that if you are facing any "AATATAAYIN" then do not see what the caste he belong and kill him without second thought. And Shiwajiraje always followed that.

  26. There has never been a more true Sanatan Hindu than Shivaji Maharaj
    The manusmriti isnt hindu, and as hindu i hate it
    Jai shivaji
    Jai maharashtra

  27. Read comments in this page

  28. हिंदू ही भौगोलिक identity आहे

    अनेक पंथाची बांधलेली मोळी म्हण
    फक्त हिंदू हा शब्द तेवढ्यासाठी च वापरला गेला आहे कारण
    त्यात त्या वेळचे (आणि संख्येने आज ही) dominant पंथ ज्याला आपण abrahamic म्हणतो (jew cristian मुस्लिम) ते सोडून जे पंथ आहेत

    ज्यात एक धागा मिळतो तो म्हणजे ह्या सिंधू पार च्या मातीमध्ये रुजले वाढले पाळलेले

    हिंदू ही एक umbrella छत्री म्हणू शकतोस
    जी जैन बौद्ध शीख वैष्णव शैव आणि अशा अनेक पंथाना एकत्र बांधते

    Constitution मध्ये बाबासाहेबानी पण abrahamic सोडून बाकी सगळे हिंदू म्हंटले आहे ।

  29. वरील comment वाचून हिंदू defination लक्षात घेतल्या नंतर

    हिंदू धर्मा ला हे मान्य नव्हते ये मान्य नव्हते म्हणणे हा तुमच्या poor understanding चा दोष आहे

    आणि शिवाजी नि अशा सो कॉल्ड हिंदू नियमांची चौकट कशी मोडली अशी मांडणी करणे हा चावटपणा ।

    पण मला वाटते महावीर सांगलीकर कडून दुसरी अपेक्षा करण्यात अर्थ नाही (मी एक च article वाचले आहे पूर्वी ह्यांचे ते ही असेच होते)
    आपल्याला पाहिजे तशी च मांडणी करणे हा brigady छंद आहे
    पाहिजे एवढा जोपासा :D

  30. Thanks for providing real history of shivaji maharaj. I really liked this article

  31. To Understand ManuSmriti - first of all we have to accept that ir was heavily meddled with by the BRITISH. Next -

    The origin of the caste system, formulated by the great legislator Manu, was admirable. He saw clearly that men are distinguished by natural evolution into four great classes: those capable of offering service to society through their bodily labor ( Sudras); those who serve through mentality, skill, agriculture, trade, commerce, business life in general (Vaisyas); those whose talents are administrative, executive, and protectiverulers and warriors ( Kshatriyas); those of contemplative nature, spiritually inspired and inspiring (Brahmins). “Neither birth nor sacraments nor study nor ancestry can decide whether a person is twice-born (i.e., a Brahmin);” the Mahabharata declares, “character and conduct only can decide.”9 Manu instructed society to show respect to its members insofar as they possessed wisdom, virtue, age, kinship or, lastly, wealth. Riches in Vedic India were always despised if they were hoarded or unavailable for charitable purposes. Ungenerous men of great wealth were assigned a low rank in society.

    Serious evils arose when the caste system became hardened through the centuries into a hereditary halter. Social reformers like Gandhi and the members of very numerous societies in India today are making slow but sure progress in restoring the ancient values of caste, based solely on natural qualification and not on birth. Every nation on earth has its own distinctive misery-producing karma to deal with and remove; India, too, with her versatile and invulnerable spirit, shall prove herself equal to the task of caste-reformation.


  32. Continued from previous -

    8 Manu is the universal lawgiver; not alone for Hindu society, but for the world. All systems of wise social regulations and even justice are patterned after Manu. Nietzsche has paid the following tribute: “I know of no book in which so many delicate and kindly things are said to woman as in the Lawbook of Manu; those old graybeards and saints have a manner of being gallant to women which perhaps cannot be surpassed . . . an incomparably intellectual and superior work . . . replete with noble values, it is filled with a feeling of perfection, with a saying of yea to life, and a triumphant sense of well-being in regard to itself and to life; the sun shines upon the whole book.”

    9 “Inclusion in one of these four castes originally depended not on a man’s birth but on his natural capacities as demonstrated by the goal in life he elected to achieve,” an article in East-West for January, 1935, tells us. “This goal could be (1) kama, desire, activity of the life of the senses (Sudra stage), (2) artha, gain, fulfilling but controlling the desires (Vaisya stage), (3) dharma, self-discipline, the life of responsibility and right action (Kshatriya stage), (4) moksha, liberation, the life of spirituality and religious teaching (Brahmin stage). These four castes render service to humanity by (1) body, (2) mind, (3) will power, (4) Spirit.
    “These four stages have their correspondence in the eternal gunas or qualities of nature, tamas, rajas, and sattva: obstruction, activity, and expansion; or, mass, energy, and intelligence. The four natural castes are marked by the gunas as (1) tamas (ignorance), (2) tamas-rajas (mixture of ignorance and activity), (3) rajas-sattva (mixture of right activity and enlightenment), (4) sattva (enlightenment). Thus has nature marked every man with his caste, by the predominance in himself of one, or the mixture of two, of the gunas. Of course every human being has all three gunas in varying proportions. The guru will be able rightly to determine a man’s caste or evolutionary status.
    “To a certain extent, all races and nations observe in practice, if not in theory, the features of caste. Where there is great license or so-called liberty, particularly in intermarriage between extremes in the natural castes, the race dwindles away and becomes extinct. The Purana Samhita compares the offspring of such unions to barren hybrids, like the mule which is incapable of propagation of its own species. Artificial species are eventually exterminated. History offers abundant proof of numerous great races which no longer have any living representatives. The caste system of India is credited by her most profound thinkers with being the check or preventive against license which has preserved the purity of the race and brought it safely through millenniums of vicissitudes, while other races have vanished in oblivion.”


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