Sunday, November 21, 2010

Yadavas of Devgiri

Yadavas of Devagiri -The predecessors of Yadavas of Devagiri, who Devagiri. ruled over Khandesh, Nasik and Ahmadnagar Districts, were the vassals of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta and the Chalukyas of Kalyani for a period of over three hundred years. Drdhaprahara, the founder of the family hailing from Dhvaravatipura or modern Dvaraka in Kathiawar, flourished in the first half of the 9th century A.D. and had Chandradityapura or modern Chandor in Nasik district as his capital. His son Seunachandra I founded a city called Seunapura and also gave the name Seun-desa to the country on the confines of Dandaka and included Devagiri, modern Daulatabad, in the Aurangabad district. Inscriptions of the successors of Seunachandra style themselves as Seunas. Kama, one of the remote successors of this Seunachandra I had as son Bhillama V who was the first independent king of the race.

Bhillama ascended the throne in 1185 A.D. This was the time of a great upheaval in the Deccan. Failure of Chalukya Someshvara IV in consolidating his power, emboldened him in bidding for a paramount power in the Deccan. With the help of his able generals, he wrested power and territories from Someshvara IV including Kalyarm in 1189 A.D. Inscriptions of 'Bhillama's reign refer to his supermacy over Belvola, Tardavadi and Madagihar in the old Jath State. The statement of the Mutgi inscription that he secured victories over the Kalnigas, Gaudas, Vashigas, Arigas, Napalas and the Panehalas seems to be very extravagant. According to Hemadri, Bhillama founded the city of Devagiri and probably made it his capital. The earliest mention of Devagiri as the capital of Seunas is found in an inscription of Jaitugi or Jartrapala, son of Bhillama in 1196 A.D. Inscriptional evidence reveals that Bhillama associated with him his son in the Government from A.D. 1191 and died shortly after 1193 A.D. During the closing years of his reign he had to fight with Ballala II of Hoyasalas with no success. Jaitugi also failed to dislodge Ballala II from his position. Nevertheless the kingdom of Seunas during Jaitugi's reign extended upto the confluence of Krshna and Tungabhadra bringing Seunas near Kakatiyas who were also defeated by jaitugi. Jaitugi ruled up to 1210 (1191 to 1210) A.D. and was succeeded by his son Singhana about the year 1210 (1210-1247 A.D.).

Singhana was certainly the most distinguished member of the family. He put an end to the rule of the Kolhapur branch of the Silahara family by overthrowing Bhoja II. With the exception of powerful Hoyasals, Singhana was able to assert supremacy over all kingdoms in the south. Singhana's empire extended from Khandesh up to the Shimoga and Anahtpur districts, and from the western coast (including Northern Konkan) up to the eastern parts of Hyderabad and Berar. During the reign of this king, Sharangdhara composed his famous treatise on music called Sarigita-ratnakara. Singhana was on the throne up to June 1247 A.D. Krshna, his grandson, came to the throne in 1247 A.D., and continued Singhana's policy of expanding the Seuna empire in all directions. Stone inscriptions of Krshna found in the Shimoga, Chitaldurg, Bellary, Dharvar and Belganv districts show that he succeeded in retaining the hounds of the kingdom of his grandfather Jalhana. The author of Suktimuktavali was his counsellor and commander. Krshna appointed Mahadeva, his brother, as heir apparent who succeeded him in 1261 A.D., Mahadeva continued hostilities with the Hoysalas, and Silaharas of Northern Konkan, the Vaghelas of Gujarat, the Parmaras of Malva and the Kakatiyas of Telunga country. His attempt to penetrate into the heart of the Hoyasala kingdom was crowned with a failure. Hemadri, the founder of Hemadapanti architecture, was his minister. Mahadeva closed his reign in 1270-1271 A.D. Civil war between his son Amna and Ramachandra, the son of King Krshna resulted into the treacherous capture and slaughter of the former by the latter. Ramachandra in the early years of his rule made a frantic effort to crush the power of Hoyasalas, but was unable to achieve the end. He also failed in overcoming Vaghela Sararigadeva. He, however, succeeded in defeating the Chiefs of Dahala (modern Jabalpur), Vijrakara (modem Vairagarah in Madhya Pradesh) and Bhandagara (modern Bhandara in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra). Inscriptions of Ramchandra show that he was able to retain the Seuna kingdom during the early days of his rule. But the prestige of the Seuna kingdom was irretrievably damaged on account of Ramachandra's failure to save his capital from being plundered by Ala-ud-din Khilji the governor of Kara, who invaded Devagiri by way of Eliehpur in 1296 A.D. Hereditary enemies now pressed hard upon them. Kakatiya Prataparudra succeeded in pushing the western border of his empire upto Medak and Raichur. In A.D. 1305, Hoyasala Ballala III wrested from Ramchandra Banavasi, Santaliga and Kogali. In fact, there is no evidence to prove  that Shimoga and Chitaldurg districts were under the rule of Seunas after 1300 A.D.. The Deccan was again raided by Muslims, when Seunas were fighting for defence in the south. Ramachandra had to swerve from his allegiance to the Government of Delhi due to strained relations and in 1307 A.D. Ala-ud-din Khilji sent Malik-Naib Kafur with a great army, who overran the Seuna kingdom and took Ramachandra a prisoner to Delhi. Ramachandra was, however, released after a period of six months and was allowed to rule his kingdom as a vassal under the Sultanate army for an invasion of Telingana country. Ramachandra helped Muslims against Hoyasala Ballala III of Dorasamudra in 1311.

Ramachandra was succeeded by his son Shankaradeva in 1311 A.D. who antagonised the Sultan by his hostile activities. In A.D. 1313, Malik-Naib directed an expedition against Shankaradeva, killed him and assumed the government of Devagiri. Ala-ud-din's death caused confusion in Delhi. Taking advantage of this, Harapaladeva, the son-in-law of Ramachandra [The Struggle for Empire p. 48.] declared his independence and captured the fort of Devagiri with the help of Raghava, the minister of Ramachandra. But in 1318 A.D. [Ibid., p. 40.] Mubarak the son and successor of Ala-ud-din, recovered Devagiri by defeating and killing Harapaladeva or Haripala. Raghava suffered defeat at the hands of Khusrav Khan, Mubarak's commander. Thus the kingdom of Seunas passed into the hands of Muslims in 1318 A.D. [Ibid., p. 42.]

(From Gazetter of Satara)


  1. brahmanani aajparyant aamhala khota itihas ahmala sangitala......... khara itihas baher kadhanararyanche abhinandan........

  2. देवगिरी के यादव राजवंश की स्थापना रामचन्द्र नामक एक धनगर ने की थी और उनका कुलनाम(वंश) यादव था |

  3. देवगिरी के यादव राजवंश की स्थापना रामचन्द्र नामक एक धनगर ने की थी और उनका कुलनाम(वंश) यादव था |

  4. देवगिरी के यादव राजवंश की स्थापना रामचन्द्र नामक एक धनगर ने की थी और उनका कुलनाम(वंश) यादव था |


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